Cavities, also known as tooth decay, occur when plaque, the sticky substance
that forms on teeth, combines with sugar and starches of the food that we eat.
This combination produces acids that attacks tooth enamel.

Root canal
A root canal is a dental procedure to fix a tooth by removing the pulp chamber
of the tooth and filling it with a suitable filling material. A root canal is usually
performed when the tooth cannot be filled or restored any other way because
the decay has reached the nerve of the tooth or the tooth has become infected.
After a tooth has had a root canal, it can become dry and brittle and easy to break.
A crown is usually recommended to restore the tooth properly. Most root
canals are successful, but there is always a chance of a new infection,
which could require another root canal or removal of the tooth.

Gum Disease

Gum disease is an infection in the gums surrounding the teeth. Gum disease is
also one of the main causes of tooth loss among adults.

There are two major stages of gum disease:

Gingivitis is the early stage of gum disease and can be treated and reversed if
diagnosed early. The signs and symptoms are red, swollen, and puffy gums that
bleed easily. If treatment is not received, gingivitis could lead to periodontitis.

Periodontitis is the serious and advanced stage of gum disease which includes
bone loss and is irreversible. The gum tissue and bone surrounding the teeth could
become seriously damaged and the teeth affected could become loose and fall out.

While gum disease is a very serious dental condition, it can be prevented. Regular
check ups are a key factor in early detection of gum disease as well as detecting
oral cancer, another serious dental condition that can also be fatal.